Open access has been criticized on quality grounds, as the desire to maximize publishing fees could cause some journals to relax the standard of peer review. It may be criticized on financial grounds as well because the necessary publication fees have proven to be higher than originally expected. Open access advocates generally reply that because open access is as much based on peer reviewing as traditional publishing, the quality should be the same recognizing that both traditional and open access journals have a range of quality.
It has also been argued that good science done by academic institutions who cannot afford to pay for open access might not get published at all, but most open access journals permit the waiver of the fee for financial hardship or authors in underdeveloped countries. In any case, all authors have the option of self-archiving their articles in their institutional repositories in order to make them open access , whether or not they publish them in a journal. If they publish in a Hybrid open access journal , authors pay a subscription journal a publication fee to make their individual article open access.
The other articles in such hybrid journals are either made available after a delay or remain available only by subscription.
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Proponents of open access suggest that such moves by corporate publishers illustrate that open access, or a mix of open access and traditional publishing, can be financially viable, and evidence to that effect is emerging [ citation needed ]. The fraction of the authors of a hybrid open access journal that make use of its open access option can, however, be small. It also remains unclear whether this is practical in fields outside the sciences, where there is much less availability of outside funding. In , several funding agencies , including the Wellcome Trust and several divisions of the Research Councils in the UK announced the availability of extra funding to their grantees for such open access journal publication fees.
In May , the Council for the European Union agreed that from all scientific publications as a result of publicly funded research must be freely available. It also must be able to optimally reuse research data. To achieve that, the data must be made accessible, unless there are well-founded reasons for not doing so, for example, intellectual property rights or security or privacy issues. In recent decades there has been a growth in academic publishing in developing countries as they become more advanced in science and technology.
Although the large majority of scientific output and academic documents are produced in developed countries, the rate of growth in these countries has stabilized and is much smaller than the growth rate in some of the developing countries. The fastest scientific output growth rate over the last two decades has been in the Middle East and Asia with Iran leading with an fold increase followed by the Republic of Korea, Turkey, Cyprus, China, and Oman.
By , it was noted that the output of scientific papers originating from the European Union had a larger share of the world's total from However, the United States' output dropped Iran, China, India , Brazil , and South Africa were the only developing countries among the 31 nations that produced The remaining countries contributed less than 2. The report predicted that China would overtake the United States sometime before , possibly as early as China's scientific impact, as measured by other scientists citing the published papers the next year, is smaller although also increasing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. For broader coverage of this topic, see Scholarly communication. Main article: Serials crisis. Main article: Academic journal publishing reform. See also: Types of scientific journal articles. Main article: Academic peer review. Main article: Citation.
Main article: Scientific literature.
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Main article: Open access journal. Nature Web Focus. December Learned Publishing. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on Retrieved Bibcode : PLoSO.. The Guardian. New Scientist. Retrieved 27 November Archived at the Wayback Machine. Scott Armstrong Journal of Informetrics. Economic Inquiry. Hanover Grants. Archived from the original PDF download on The Gerber Foundation. Kronick, " Peer review in 18th-century scientific journalism. Science Editor. Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Retrieved 19 November Journal copy-editing in a non-anglophone environment.
In: Matarese, Valerie ed Supporting Research Writing: Roles and challenges in multilingual settings. Title of article. Title of Journal, xx yy , pp—pp. Adair, J. American Psychologist, 58 1 , 15— There are several things to notice here. The reference includes a hanging indent. That is, the first line of the reference is not indented but all subsequent lines are.
This is true even when there are only two authors. Only the first word of the article title is capitalized. The only exceptions are for words that are proper nouns or adjectives e. In the journal title, however, all the important words are capitalized.
The journal title and volume number are italicized; however, the issue number listed within parentheses is not. At the very end of the reference is the digital object identifier DOI , which provides a permanent link to the location of the article on the Internet. Include this if it is available. It can generally be found in the record for the item on an electronic database e. Kashdan, T. The upside of your dark side. Title of chapter. Editor, B. Editor Eds. Location: Publisher.
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Lilienfeld, S. Dissociative identity disorder: Multiple personalities, multiple controversies. Lohr Eds. Notice that references for books and book chapters are similar to those for journal articles, but there are several differences too. Only the first word of a book title is capitalized with the exceptions noted for article titles , and the entire title is italicized.
What counts as an idea that must be cited? In general, this includes phenomena discovered by other researchers, theories they have developed, hypotheses they have derived, and specific methods they have used e. Citations should also appear for factual information that is not common knowledge so that other researchers can check that information for themselves. For example, in an article on the effect of cell phone usage on driving ability, the writer might cite official statistics on the number of cell phone—related accidents that occur each year.
Among the ideas that do not need citations are widely shared methodological and statistical concepts e. Therefore, when in doubt, find an appropriate reference to cite or remove the questionable assertion. When you cite a work in the text of your manuscript, there are two ways to do it. Both include only the last names of the authors and the year of publication. Here are some examples:. Although many people believe that women are more talkative than men, Mehl, Vazire, Ramirez-Esparza, Slatcher, and Pennebaker found essentially no difference in the number of words spoken by male and female college students.
Notice several things. One thing to notice about such parenthetical citations is that they are often placed at the end of the sentence, which minimizes their disruption to the flow of that sentence.
In contrast to the first way of citing a work, this way always includes the year—even when the citation is given multiple times in the same paragraph. Notice also that when there are multiple citations in the same set of parentheses, they are organized alphabetically by the name of the first author and separated by semicolons. There are no strict rules for deciding which of the two citation styles to use. Most articles and book chapters contain a mixture of the two. In general, however, the first approach works well when you want to emphasize the person who conducted the research—for example, if you were comparing the theories of two prominent researchers.
How To Psychology Research Guide. The library subscribes to the journals and databases listed on this page. Question : Are you using a laptop on campus? Use it to locate scholarly research findings in psychology and related fields.
Psychology Research Guide
Includes document types, such as journal articles, book chapters, book reviews, and editorials. Includes citations and abstracts for academic sources and more. Full text of newspapers. Select a subject area or search across all subjects.
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