Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)

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Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try after some time. However, it has to be taken in consideration as well, that, in our experiment in contrast to Sharot's work on optimism, participants faced a favorite and least favorite team. Thus, they did not only anticipate positive and negative events for themselves.

In some cases, in our study, negative outcomes may even have been specifically desired i. Thus, we would not expect a generally increased activity in the ACC for low vs high chances of winning irrespective of consideration of team. For the same reason, we would not expect differential ACC activity for the two teams, irrespective of anticipated chances of winning. Moreover, the concrete aims of the study may have been more transparent and consciously perceivable in the Sharot et al.


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In sum, our data propose that the occipital cluster and its functional connectivities are specifically involved in the type of WT investigated in our study, whereas activity in the dmPFC—possibly related to social identification—may just ensure the affective context necessary for WT to arise. We outlined that the occipital cluster has been related to visual attention, its functional connections insula, posterior cingulate, caudate, putamen to reward processing in earlier research.

In our specific case, self-relevance may have activated structures of the human reward system, which in turn synchronized with the occipital cortex to guide visual attention in order to serve individual hedonic needs. It is important to note, however, that our interpretations concerning the direction of information transmission in the brain during WT are premature since the PPI does not allow for causal inferences.

Future research should investigate the flow of information, for instance, whether supposedly attention-related areas are recruited by the limbic and striatal areas, whether the flow of information goes the other way around, or whether influences are bi-directional. Besides, the neural correlates we identified in our study do not need to be specific to WT. One can very well imagine highly similar neural response patterns in studies that confront individuals with alternative affective-laden situations without any need to take a decision or to make future predictions e.

Here, selective attention may take place nonetheless and activity in the visual cortex may display similar patterns of connectivities as in the current study. Finally, our behavioral results demonstrate that WT appears even in tasks with demand for the application of rational Bayesian statistics. Greater effects of WT might be expected when no concrete and explicit objective background information is available, which is the case in most everyday life situations.

These real-life situations should give even greater space for the employment of selective attention, for instance, by the activation of memory episodes that serve the goal of a positive identity. In such cases, the reward and regulation systems may be additionally functionally connected to memory-related neural networks. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation.

Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume 7. Article Contents. Conflict of Interest. Neural correlates of wishful thinking Tatjana Aue. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Howard C. John T. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Wishful thinking WT implies the overestimation of the likelihood of desirable events.

Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1. All P s are based on two-tailed testing. Open in new tab. Table 2. Table 3. All P 's are based on two-tailed testing. We use the term wishful thinking because i this is the literature upon which we draw in the present study, ii McGuire's concept of wishful thinking predated Weinstein's use of the term optimism to refer to this phenomenon and iii contemporary researchers often use the term optimism not to mean Weinstein's definition but to mean the dictionary definition of optimism which implies that individuals display hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful outcome of something without explicitly referring to individual preferences or affective experiences.

Search ADS. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition. Google Preview. Biased information search in homogeneous groups: confidence as a moderator for the effect of anticipated task requirements. Direct comparison of episodic encoding and retrieval of words: an event-related fMRI study. Localization of regions of intense pleasure response evoked by soccer goals. Rethinking feelings: an fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion.

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Apples to apples? Another set of experiments using binocular rivalry in humans showed that certain layers of the cortex can be excluded as candidates of the neural correlate of consciousness. Logothetis and colleagues switched the images between eyes during the percept of one of the images. Surprisingly the percept stayed stable. This means that the conscious percept stayed stable and at the same time the primary input to layer 4, which is the input layer, in the visual cortex changed. Therefore layer 4 can not be a part of the neural correlate of consciousness.

Mikhail Lebedev and their colleagues observed a similar phenomenon in monkey prefrontal cortex. In their experiments monkeys reported the perceived direction of visual stimulus movement which could be an illusion by making eye movements. Some prefrontal cortex neurons represented actual and some represented perceived displacements of the stimulus.

Observation of perception related neurons in prefrontal cortex is consistent with the theory of Christof Koch and Francis Crick who postulated that neural correlate of consciousness resides in prefrontal cortex. Proponents of distributed neuronal processing may likely dispute the view that consciousness has a precise localization in the brain. Francis Crick wrote a popular book, " The Astonishing Hypothesis ," whose thesis is that the neural correlate for consciousness lies in our nerve cells and their associated molecules. Crick and his collaborator Christof Koch [43] have sought to avoid philosophical debates that are associated with the study of consciousness, by emphasizing the search for "correlation" and not "causation".

There is much room for disagreement about the nature of this correlate e. Is the co-activation of frontal or parietal areas necessary? The philosopher David Chalmers maintains that a neural correlate of consciousness, unlike other correlates such as for memory, will fail to offer a satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon; he calls this the hard problem of consciousness. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bodily components, such as electrical signals, correlating to consciousness and thinking.

June , "What is a neural correlate of consciousness? See Chapter 5, available on line. Journal of Consciousness Studies. In Fetzer, James H. Consciousness Evolving. John Benjamins. Retrieved Front Psychol. Journal of the American Philosophical Association. The quest for consciousness: a neurobiological approach. The place of mind. Cengage Learning. See also this link. Adamantidis A. Baars B. Sian Beilock , Carr T.

Blumenfeld H. Bogen J. An Overview. Consciousness and Cognition 4: 52— Chalmers, David J. Seminars in Neuroscience Vol2, — Crick F. Nature —3. Dehaene S. USA —5. Haynes J. Kandel Eric R. In search of memory: The emergence of a new science of mind. Kim C-Y and Blake R.

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Trends Cogn. Koch, Christof Koch C. Nature Nature —2.

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  6. Proc Natl. USA — Laureys S. Lee S. Leopold D. Nature — Logothetis N. B, — Milner A. Owen A. Science Rees G. In: The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Velmans M and Schneider S, eds. Blackwell: Oxford, UK. Sheinberg D.

    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking) Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)
    Neural Correlates of Thinking (On Thinking)

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