In the aphids, Prociphilus fraxini, Sipha Rungsia maydis, Thelaxes dryophila, Aphis viburni, Cavariella theobaldi, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, Eulachnus rileyi and Schizolachnus pineti , in addition to Buchnera aphidicola , secondary endosymbionts are also present. The bacteriocytes containing secondary endosymbionts are less numerous than those with Buchnera.
In Eulachnus rileyi Lachnidae , in addition to primary and secondary endosymbionts, there is a third type of microorganism.
In all species examined both the primary and secondary endosymbionts are transovarially transmitted from mother to offspring. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Attribution 4. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Powered by peer review management and editorial system Actavia. Keywords: Aphidoidea, endosymbiotic bacteria, bacteriocytes, transovarial transmission of endosymbiotic bacteria dryophila , Aphididae Delphiniobium junackianum, Aphis viburni, Cavariella theobaldi, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria and aphids, Prociphilus fraxini, Sipha Rungsia maydis, Thelaxes dryophila, Aphis viburni, Cavariella theobaldi, Macrosiphoniella Received: March 7, ; Revised: July 7, ; Accepted: July 7, ; Published: January 9, Show citation.
Endosymbiotic microorganisms of aphids Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea : Ultrastructure, distribution and transovarial transmission. Open full article. Cell Go to original source Nine types of sensilla were found on the antennae of C. The sensilla trichodea with two subtypes were the most abundant sensilla among three fruit borers. Two subtypes of sensillum coeloconica type I with spines and type II without spines were observed on the antennae of C. However, sensilla coeloconica type I were only found in S. Although the sensilla campaniformia were only found on the antennae of C.
In addition, the functions of these sensilla were discussed based on previously reported lepidopteran insects. As a result, our study may provide useful information for advanced electrophysiological and behavioral experiments to better understand the mechanisms related to pests control. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Yiping Li and Prof. Yiping Li. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. More specifically, the yellow peach moth, C. The oriental fruit moth, G. The pear bud moth, S. With the increasing growing cultivated area, the three fruit borers has becoming serious pests of many fruit orchards and crops and cause serious economic loss. At present, the control of them mainly relies on the utility of chemical insecticides.
Nevertheless, chemical control also brings with it a series of problems such as insecticide resistance, environmental pollutions and the decrease of biodiversity [ 4 , 5 ]. Consequently, the application of biological controls, including the use of sex pheromones, may become potentially effective measures to suppress the pest [ 6 ]. The antennal sensilla of insect is an important organ which can recognize the sex pheromones, so it is the most important step that obtain the ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of this three fruit borers [ 7 ]. In insect, the sensillum is a specialized structure of the epidermis, especially occur in the form of hairs, pegs, etc [ 8 , 9 ].
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They play an important role in the feeling of various stimuli odor, sound, heat, cold, humidity and tactile information involved in finding suitable habitat and locating mates[ 11 , 12 , 13 ], on the other hand, play important roles in many behaviors, including detect sex pheromone and host plant volatiles [ 14 , 15 ]. As we know, a lot of studies have characterized the antennal sensilla of various insects, sepecially the structure and function of antennal sensilla in Lepidoptera, have been documented by ultrastructure in many families in the past few decades [ 16 — 20 ]. However, as far as we know, no compared work has been published on the antenna1 sensilla of three fruit borers mentioned above.
In order to better understand their olfactory system related to the biological control of these three fruit borers, we observed and compared the morphology of antennae and type of anternnal sensilla of the male and female between C. The fruits i. The antennal sensilla were identified based on their morphology described by Schneider [ 8 ] and Na [ 21 ]. The filamentous antennae of C. The first two regions are covered with scales, as is on its dorsal surface of the flagellum. In contrast, the ventral surface of the flagellum is equipped with the sensilla.
No significant differences are found between sexes, except the number of sub-segment of flagellum Table 1. Nine types of sensilla are totally found on the antennae of C. Notably, sensilla coeloconica can be found on the antennae of female only. SCh sensilla chaetica , SQ sensilla squamiformia ; D. SBa sensilla basiconica ; E.
SCa sensilla campaniformia ; K. SAu sensilla auricillica , SCa sensilla campaniformia ; L. Sensilla trichodea Fig 1B are the most widely distributed sensilla on the antennae of C. Sensilla trichodea can be divided into two subtypes Type I and II. Sensilla trichodea Type I Fig 1L is straight at the base and taper toward the end. Sensilla trichodea Type II Fig 1B , is curved at the base, and parallel to the surface of antenna at the terminal end.
Sensilla chaetica Fig 1C , are upright and protrude similar to a thorn with a grooved surface, and they are mainly found on each flagellomere. Sensilla basiconica Fig 1D are short and robust with blunt setae. These sensilla present on the distal surface of each sub-segment of flagellum. They are as in clusters at the base of the scape and pedicel only. Sensilla auricillica Fig 1F and 1K are ear-shaped, covered with many small pores on its surface of the cuticular.
These sensilla are mainly scattered on the distal of the flagllum. Sensilla squamiformia Fig 1C are scale-like and more elongated than scape with a distal end tapering, found along the scape and pedicel among the scales. Sensilla styloconica are thumb-like with a small cone-shape tip. These sensilla are distributed at the distal margin of each sub-segment of flagellum.
Sensilla styloconica can also be divided into two subtypes Type I and II.
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Sensilla styloconica Type I Fig 1G are feeding-bottle shaped with a smooth surface; In contrast, sensilla styloconica Type II Fig 1H have a grooved surface with a spine-like tip apically. Sensilla coeloconica SCo I consist of a submerged central peg surrounded by a ring of cuticular spines, while sensilla coeloconica SCo II Fig 1I have a central peg only, without a ring of cuticular spines Fig 1F and 1L. Sensilla campaniformia Fig 1F, 1J and 1K are hemispherical-like with a smooth surface, only a few these sensilla are found at the distal margin of sub-segment of flagellum.
The antenna of G. The number of flagellomere is also different between the sexe s. In total, eight types of sensilla were found on the antennae of G. SCh sensilla chaetica ; E. SAu sensilla auricillica ; G. SQ sensilla squamiformia ; H.
The antennae of S. ST I sensilla trichodea I ; C.
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SCh sensilla chaetica. Sensilla trichodea, as the most abundant sensilla in this study, were similar in shape between these three fruit borer moths and other lepidopteran insects [ 22 ]. According to their size and density, sensilla trichodea could be divided into more subtypes, for example, three subtypes were found on Ostrinia nubilalis [ 23 ].
But, only two subtypes of sensilla trichodea were identified among the three fruit borer moths in our study. These types of sensilla are olfactory reception of host plant volatiles and sex pheromones [ 22 ]. Sensilla chaetica have been commonly presented in many lepidopteran insects [ 24 — 26 ]. In this study sensilla chaetica were similar in structure among the three moths. Sensilla chaetica could perceive the movement of antennae as proprio receptors as shown previously [ 27 , 28 ] and considered to be chemoreceptors [ 29 ].
Sensilla basiconica are larger sensilla with papula surface, sensory cones, and extensively pitted surface [ 30 — 33 ].
Our results showed that sensilla basiconica were morphologically similar in the three moths. This types of sensilla observed in this study also closely resembled to that observed in many other families of Lepidoptera [ 22 ]. Sensilla basiconica on the antennae are deduced to possess olfactory function [ 22 , 34 ]. In several studies, this type sensilla were considered to be the mechanoreceptors with a proprioceptive function [ 29 , 36 ].
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Our observation showed that Sensilla auricillica in the three fruit borer moths were consistent with that in butterfly and moth species, even though their distribution and external morphology were variously. Recommend Documents. Ultrastructure in biological systems. Phytochemistry, vol. Halogen Chemistry. Neuroendocrine perspectives, vol. Nutrition vol. Clinical neuropharmacology, vol. Planar chromatography, Vol. Author index Vol. Cognitive theory, vol. Behavior and Rhythmic Phenomena, 8. Osmoregulation, 9. Metabolism and Neurohormone and Cuticle.
The author has made many contributions to the role that neurohormones play in insects.
bbmpay.veritrans.co.id/roses-agencia-de-citas.php There are some excellent diagrams, one of which is shown here, which summarizes the neurohormonal and glandular regulation in insects. This is compared with another diagram in the book for the system in the vertebrates. It is especially pleasing to see that the insect systems are now being considered for the role they play in the reactions of the whole animal, and that an integrative approach is emphasized in this important volume. See Fig. I, Insect Ultrastructure Vol.
King and Hiromu Akai. Plenum Press, New York and London. This is the first of two volumes devoted to Insect Ultrastructure. However, the chapters have been brought up-to-date. The contributors have presented detailed reviews of their subject, placing it both in a historical background and giving the up-to-date accounts of recent research.
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