The height CSS property specifies the height of an element.
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By default, the property defines the height of the content area. If box-sizing is set to border-box , however, it instead determines the height of the border area. The source for this interactive example is stored in a GitHub repository. The min-height and max-height properties override height. Get the latest and greatest from MDN delivered straight to your inbox. Please check your inbox or your spam filter for an email from us.
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It plots average male height on the y-axis, and average female height on the x-axis. The grey line shows where these heights are equal. As we can see, all countries lie above this line; this means that on average, men are taller than women in every country in the world.
height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets | MDN
The following map shows the ratio of male-to-female average heights across the world. Globally, the ratio is 1. Curiously, the global ratio — around 1. Despite a relatively consistent ratio at the global level, some countries have seen significant changes.
A Tranquil Paradise
A century ago, South Korean males were on average 18 cm taller than their female counterparts; this difference has fallen to 13 cm, meaning that South Korean women have seen larger absolute gains in height than South Korean men. By contrast, in the Philippines this difference has doubled from 7 cm to 14 cm, meaning that average height of Filipino men has increased faster than that of Filipino women.
But when does this differentiation in heights take place? How do the growth trends for boys and girls in childhood differ? The chart below presents the expected growth rates for healthy boys and girls during childhood and adolescence. It combines data from World Health Organization WHO growth reference standards for infants, children, and adolescents. These standards are used to assess the degree to which the health and nutritional demands for growth and development are met around the world.
The studies included healthy children from a diverse set of ethnicities, in order to reduce the impact of genetic variability between populations. As the chart shows, boys are typically a fraction taller than girls at birth.
In the Heights
Both sexes grow very quickly in the first six months of life, with this growth rate decreasing gradually during the following years. After three years of life, both boys and girls have approximately doubled in height since birth, but boys are still slightly taller. By the age of eight, the rate of growth for boys begins to slow, but does not typically slow for girls. Around the age of nine, we see that girls often overtake boys. At 11 years old, girls are typically more than two centimeters taller than boys.
This is when the rate of growth of girls finally begins to slow. In contrast, boys start to grow faster. Around the age of 13, boys overtake again. Girls tend to stop growing a few years earlier than boys, reaching their final adult height around 16 years old. Boys peak later, at around 18 years old. Of course, not all children grow at the same rate or will reach the same height as adults.
The ribbons around the median growth lines on the chart represent two standard deviations above and below the median expected trend.
Stunting typically occurs during the first two years of life, since this is when growth is fastest and nutritional requirements are greatest. This means environmental factors have an important effect. The expected average height of a healthy global population should be cm for women and Interestingly, the global average height is This disparity between the actual and expected global average height may be due to the fact that historically, and still today, a large share of children are stunted. People today are taller, on average, than their ancestors years ago.
This is true for every country in the world. But how much have human heights changed, and how does this vary across the world? If we compare adult men born in versus those born a century earlier — men who had reached the age of 18 in versus — we see that the global mean height for men increased from to centimeters cm tall. We see this in the chart below. For women, this increased from cm to cm. The following slope chart illustrates the changes in mean male height by region. Here we see that the largest gains in height were seen for European and Central Asian men; their mean height increased by 11 cm, overtaking North American men in the process.
The smallest absolute gains were seen for South Asian men; mean height increased by only 5 cm. Overall, the regional variation in male heights increased over the last century. For men born in , there was an eight centimetre gap in mean height between the shortest and tallest region. We can also see this regional change for women, here. Again, the trends are similar: heights of European and Central Asian women increased the most — gaining 11 cm and overtaking North American women.
Compared to men, there was less of a divergence in female heights by region: for women born in , the gap between the tallest and shortest region was 9 to 10 cm. A century later, this was almost the same — 10 to 11 cm. The chart below shows the absolute change in the mean height of adult women for each country. As reflected in the regional trends above, the largest increases were typically in —but not limited to — Europe and Central Asia. The largest absolute change was seen for South Korean women, whose mean height increased by 20 cm. Compare this to Madagascar, which had the smallest gain of only 1.
In this chart , we can see the same metric for men. Iranian men saw the largest change, gaining By contrast, Marshallese men grew by less than 0. Did men or women see the greatest increase in height over this period? It depends on the country. At the global level, the relative increase in mean height was the same for men and women: around five percent. But as we see below, there is significant variation across countries. This chart shows the percentage change for men on the y-axis, and for women on the x-axis.
The grey line here represents parity: where the change was the same for both sexes. Countries which lie above the grey line saw greater height increase for men than for women; for countries below the line, the opposite is true. Some countries saw very different changes for men and women. The data presented in the sections above spans the period from births in to so reaching the age of 18 between and The University of Tuebingen also provides data on human height for men which covers a slightly earlier period.
It covers men born from to It gives us a perspective of changes over almost two centuries. We see this data in the charts below. Human height has steadily increased over the past 2 centuries across the globe. This trend is in line with general improvements in health and nutrition during this period. Historical data on heights tends to come from soldiers conscripts , convicted criminals, slaves and servants. It is for this reason much of the historical data focuses on men. Recent data on heights uses additional sources including surveys and medical records.
In the chart below we see human heights in males and females in the Eastern Mediterranean region from the Upper Paleolithic before 16, BC through to the 20th century. With the onset of modernity, we see a massive spike in heights in the developed world. It is worth noting that using skeletal remains is subject to measurement error with respect to the estimated height and time period.
Though in general, human height has increased around the world, the following tables demonstrate that this trend is not universal. While most comments will be posted if they are on-topic and not abusive, moderating decisions are subjective.
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