A Short History of Chinese Philosophy

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It functioned as a great companion for my examination. Oct 02, Chi rated it really liked it. Aug 02, Kate rated it really liked it Shelves: read-in-english , read-in-chinese. My biased opinion is that Chinese philosophy is only interesting before Chin. Studying became only a tool to get a job in government since Han Dynasty.

The book did a great job explaning different schools of those times. But frankly, After Han, things were so boring. Western philosophy would have been as boring if there hadn't been stimulus from science, liberalism and even religion. We in China never had those. Ming and Song Dynasties, we were still repeating Confucius - think of if Spinoza was My biased opinion is that Chinese philosophy is only interesting before Chin. Ming and Song Dynasties, we were still repeating Confucius - think of if Spinoza was still repeating Plato But when we get to the last two chapters, I found the book greatly insteresting again.

Because it touches on the author's own times and visions, authenticity and earnest shines through these chapters. Jul 19, Mary-Jean Harris rated it it was amazing Shelves: esoteric-philosophy-or-science , historical , the-best. This was a superb book about Chinese philosophy. It was very readable and intriguing, not difficult to read but covering many different topics in detail. I would highly recommend it to anyone interested in philosophy!

Jul 31, Patrick rated it liked it Shelves: china , theory. A fun read for serious students of Classical Chinese philosophy. Shelves: nonfic. Apr 02, Jussi. Not the easiest read for a beginner in Chinese philosophy. I read this in Chinese and a lot of the quotes were in ancient style prose that's hard for the younger generations to understand. It gives a very comprehensive understanding of the history of Chinese philosophy and why it's focus were different from that of the western philosophy.

Throughout the reading, I've found some interesting topics that I want to read more about. Overall, a mus Not the easiest read for a beginner in Chinese philosophy. Overall, a must read book if you want to start on Chinese philosophy. I got this book to learn more about the philosophy of Mo Tzu. I love his arguments, his strong reaction to the hierarchal system of Confucius. Mo Tzu justifies his most important concept, universal love, by bringing up the destructive nature of partiality. His utilitarianism is in stark contrast to his concept of universal love, as it is coldly logical Mo Tzu finds emotions useless and destructive.

Regardless, this is a good book for learning more about Chinese philosophy Apr 15, Hangci Du rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites. Read in Chinese version. The book is really good and Feng is just like a Feynman in Chinese Phylosophy field. The best part of Chinese Phylosophy is before Qin.

From then on, most are just like religion. Maybe it's just the rule of all human beings' evolution. We can never escape the turn to be silly. Only after we are silly, can we have the chance to be more wise,. Nov 07, Bendick Ong rated it it was amazing Shelves: humanities. To have a systematic and concise summary of Chinese philosophy from a traditional Chinese scholar, this is THE book to read. Suitable for both scholar and the lay, a good scrutiny of this book will certainly build a good foundation for anyone interested in Chinese philosophy and Sinology.

It is a short history about Chinese Philosophy, but it is the most thorough one I've never read. What a pity it is not the official text book for Chinese students, it is more important than reading Lu Xun, since Lu Xun's arguments are all based on these philosophical ideas. If students do not have a fundamental understanding of Chinese philosophy, it is useless to read LuXun. Apr 22, Han Zhicheng rated it it was amazing Shelves: philosophy. A comprehensive book that serves for introducing both the history of Chinese philosophy and the philosophy itself.

But in many cases the Taoists seemed to have confused them. C huang Chou, better known as Chuang Tzu , is perhaps the greatest of early Taoists. We are thus not sure which of the chapters of Chuang-tzu the book were really written by Chuang Tzu himself. It is, in fact, a collection of various Taoist writings, some of which represent Taoism in its first phase of development, some in its second, and some in its third. For though the name of Chuang Tzu can be taken as representative of the last phase of Taoism, it is probable that his system of thought was brought to full completion only by his followers.

Certain chapters of the Chuang Tzu , for example, contain statements about Kung-sun Lung, who certainly lived later than Chuang Tzu. Their underlying idea is that there are varying degrees in the achievement of happiness. A free development of our natures may lead us to a relative kind of happiness; absolute happiness is achieved through higher understanding of the nature of things. To carry out the first of these requirements , the free development of our nature, we should have a full and free exercise of our natural ability.

It had neither being nor name and was that from which came the One. When the One came to the existence, there One the one but still no form. When things obtained that by which they came into existence, it was called the Te. We are happy when this Te or natural ability of ours is fully and freely exercised, that is, when our nature is fully and freely developed. In connection with this idea of free development, Chuang Tzu makes a contrast between what is of nature and what is of man.

What is of man is external…. That oxen and horses should have four feet is what is nature. Things are different in their nature and their natural ability is also not the same. What they share in common, however, is that they are all equally happy when they have a full and free exercise of their natural ability. The abilities of the two are entirely differeny. The one can fly thousands of miles, while the other can hardly reach from one tree to the next.

Yet they are both happy when they each can what they are able and like to do. Thus there is no absolute uniformity in the natures of things, nor is there any need for such uniformity. Therefore we are not to amputate what is by nature long, nor to lengthen what is by nature short. Such, however, is just what artificially tries to do. The purpose of all laws, morals, institutions, and governments, is to stablish uniformity and suppress difference. The motivation of the people who try to enforce this uniformity may be wholly admirable.

When they find something that is good for them, they may be anxious to see that others have it also. This good intention of theirs, however, only makes the situation more tragic. But the bird was dazed and too timid to drink anything. In three days it was dead. This was treating the bird as one would treat oneself, not the bird as a bird…. Water is life to fish but is death to man. Being differently constituted, their likes and dislikes must necessarily differ.

Therefore the early sages did not make abilities and occupations uniform. Yet the result was just opposite to what he expected. This is what happens when uniform codes of law and morals are enforced by government and society upon the individual. This is why Chuang Tzu violently opposes the idea of governing through the formal machinery of government, and maintained instead that the best way of governing is through non-government. Letting alone springs from the fear that people will pollute their innate nature and set aside their Te. When people do not pollute their innate nature and set aside their Te , then is there need for the government of mankind?

It is also like lengthening the legs of duck or shortening those of the crane. Thus Chuang Tzu and Lao Tzu both advocate government through non-government, but for somewhat different reasons. And Chuang Tzu emphasizes the distinction between what is of nature and what is of man.

The more the former is overcome by the latter, the more there will be misery and unhappiness. Such relative happiness is achieved when one simply follows what is natural in oneself. This every man can do. The political and social philosophy of Chuang Tzu aims at achieving precisely such relative happiness for every man. This and nothing more is the most that any political social philosophy can hope to do. Relative happiness is relative because it has to depend upon something. But there aremany ways in which this exercise is obstructed. For instance, there is death which is the end of all human activities.

There are diseases which handicap human activities. There is old age which gives man the same trouble. In the Chuang-tzu there are many discussions about the greatest of all disasters that can befall man, death. Fear of death and anxiety about its coming are among the principal sources of human unhappiness.

Such fear and anxiety, however, may be diminished if we have a proper understanding of the nature of things. In the Chuang-tzu there is a story about the death of Lao Tzu. These were called by the ancients the penalth of violating the principle of the nature. When the Master came, it was because he had the occasion to be born. When he went, he simply followed the natural course. Those who are quiet at the proper occasion and follow the natural course, can be affected by sorrow or joy. They were considered by the ancients as the men of gods, who were released from bondage.

To the extent that the other mourners felt sorrow, to that extent they suffered. But by the use of understanding, man can reduce his emotions. For example, a man of understanding will not be angry when rain prevents him from going out, but a child often will. The reason is that the man possesses greater understanding, with the result that he suffers less dis appointment or exasperation than the child who does get angry.

The History of Chinese Philosophy Part 1 - The China History Podcast, Presented by Laszlo Montgomery

A story about Chuang Tzu himself well illustrates this point. Soon, however, I examined the matter from the very beginning. At the very beginning, she was not living, having no form, nor even substance. But somehow or other there was then her substance, then her form, and then her life.

Now by a further change, she has died. The whole process is like the sequence of four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. While she is thus lying in the great mansion of the universe, for me to go about weeping and wailing would be to proclaim myself ignorant of natural law. Therefore I stop.

When he understood, he was no longer affected. This teaches man to disperse emotion with reason. Such was the view of Spinoza and also of the Taoists. The Taoists maintained that the sage who has the complete understanding of the nature of things, thereby has no emotions. This, however, does not mean that he lacks sensibility. On the other hand, the wise man, in so far as he is considered as such, is secretly moved in his mind, but, being conscious by a certain eternal necessity of himself, of God, and things, never ceases to be, and always enjoys the peace of the soul.

Thus by his understanding of the nature of things, the sage is no longer affected by the changes of the world. In this way he is not dependent upon external things, and hence his happiness is not limited by them. He may be said to have achieved absolute happiness. Such is one line of Taoist thought, in which there is not a little atmosphere of pessimism and resignation. It is a line which emphasizes the inevitability of natural processes and the fatalistic acquiescence in them by man. There is another line of Thaoist thought, however, which emphasizes the relativity of the nature of things and the identification of man with the universe.

In this chapter, after describing the happiness of large and small birds, Chuang Tzu adds that among human beings there was a man named Lieh Tzu who could even ride on the wind. Yet although he was able to dispense with walking, he still had to depend upon something. Therefore it is said that the perfect man has no self; the spiritual man has no achievement; and the true sage has no name. What is here said by Chuang Tzu describes the man who has achieved absolute happiness.

He is the perfect man, the spiritual man, and the true sage. He is absolutely happy, because he transcends the ordinary distinctions of things. He is one with the Tao. The Tao does nothing and yet there is nothing that is not done. The sage is one with the Tao and therefore also has no achievements. He may rule the whole world, but his rule consists of just leaving mankind alone, and letting everyone exercise his own natural ability fully and freely.

The Tao is nameless and so the sage who is one with the Tao is also nameless. The question that remains in this: How can a person become such a perfect man? Let us start our analysis with the first or lower level.


When the wind blows, there are different kinds of sound, each with its own peculiarity. The sounds of man consists of the words yen that are spoken in the human world. They represent affirmation and denials, and the opinions that are made by each individual from his own particular finite point of view. Being thus finite, these opinions are necessarily one sided.

Yet most men. Not knowing that their opinions are based on finite point of view, invariably consider their opinions as right and those of others as wrong. When people thus argue each according to his own one-sided view, there is no way either to reach a final conclusion, or to determine which side is really right or really wrong. If you beat me, instead of my beating you, are you necessarily right and am I necessarily wrong? Or, if I beat you, and not you me, am I necessarily right and are you necessarily wrong?

Is one of us right and the other wrong? Or are both of us right or both os us wrong? Neither you nor I can know, and others are all the more in the dark. Whom shall we ask to produce the right decision? We may ask someone who agrees with you; but since he agrees with you, how can he make the decision? We may ask someone who agrees with me; but since he agrees with me, how can he make the decision? We may ask someone who agrees with both you and me; but since he agrees with both you and me, how can he make the decision?

This passage is reminiscent of the manner of argument followed by the School of Names. For this school did actually believe that argument could decide what is really right and really wrong.

A Short History Of Chinese Philosophy

Chuang Tzu, on the other hand, maintains that concepts of right and wrong are built up by each man on the basis of his own finite point of view. All these views are relative. When there is possibility, there is impossibility, and when there is impossibility, there is possibility. Because there is right, there is wrong. Because there is wrong, there is right. Therefore many views can be held about one and the same thing.

Once we say this, we assume that a higher standpoint exists. If we accept this assumption, there is no need to make a decision ourselves about what is right and what is wrong. The argument explains itself. Only the essence, an axis as it were, is the centre of the circle responding to the endless changes. The right is an endless change. The wrong is an endless change.

But the man who sees things from the point of view of Tao stands, as it were, at the centre of the circle. He understands all that is going on in the movements of the circle, but does not himself take part in these movements. This is not wrong to his inactivity and resignation, but because he has transcended the finite and sees things from a higher point of view. In the Chuang-tzu , the finite point of view is compared with the view of the well-frog. The frog in the well can see only a little sky, and so thinks that the sky only so big.

From the point of view of Tao, everything is just what it is. The impossible is impossible. The Tao makes things and they are what they are. What are they? They are what they are. What are they not? They are not what they are not. Everything is something and is good for something. There is nothing which is not something or is not good for something.

Thus it is that there are roof-salts and pillars, ugliness and beauty, the peculiar and the extraordinary. All these by means of the Tao are united and become one. They all equally come from the Tao. Therefore from the viewpoint of the Tao, things, though different, yet are united and become one. But construction is the same as destruction. For things as a whole there is neither construction nor destruction, but they turn to unity and become one. But from the viewpoint of the wood or the tree, it is one of destruction. Such construction or destruction are so, however, only from a finite point of view.

From the viewpoint of the Tao , there is neither construction nor destruction. These distinctions are all relative. There is nothing older than a dead child, yet Peng Tsu [a legendary Methuselah] dad an untimely death. Heaven and Earth and I came into existence together, and all things with me are one. But since I have already spoken of the one, is this not already speech? One plus speech make two. Two plus one make three. Going on from this, even the most skilful reckoner will not be able to reach the end, and how much less able to do so are ordinary people!

If proceeding from nothing to something we can reach three, how much further shall we reach, if we proceed from something to something! Let us not proceed. Let us stop here. For as soon as it is thought of and discussed, it becomes something that exists externally to the person who is doing the thinking and speaking. For anything that can be thought or spoken of has something beyond itself, namely, the thought and the speaking. Let us forget the distinction between right and wrong. Let us take our joy in the realm of the infinite and remain there. This experience is the experience of living in the realm of infinite.

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He has forgotten all the distinctions of things, even those involved in his own life. In his experience there remains only the undifferentiable one, in the midst of which he lives. Here we see how Chuang Tzu reached a final resolution of the original problem of the early Taoists. That problem is how to preserve life and avoid harm and danger. But, to the real sage, it ceases to be a problem.

If we attain this unity and identify ourselves with it, then the members of our body are but so much dust and dirt, while life and death, end and beginning, are but as the succession of day and night, which cannot disturb our inner peace. How much less shall we be troubled by worldly gain and loss, good-luck and bad-luck. This is really the philosophical way of solving problems. Philosophy gives no information about matters of fact, and so cannot solve any problem in a concrete and physical way. It cannot, for example, help man either to gain longevity or defy death, nor can it help him to gain riches and avoid poverty.

What it can do, however, is to give man a point of view, from which he can see that life is no more than death and loss is equal to gain. The sage or perfect man is one with the Great One, that is, the universe. Since the universe never ceases to be, therefore the sage also never ceases to be. But at midnight a strong man may come and carry them away on his back. The ignorant do not see that no matter how you well you store things, smaller ones in larger ones, there will always be a chance for them to be lost.

But if you store universe in the universe , there will be no room left for it to be lost. This is the great truth of things. Therefore the sage makes excursions into that which cannot be lost, and together with it he remains. In order to be one with the Great One, the sage has to transcend and forget the distinctions between things.

Therefore to discard knowledge means to forget these distinctions. Once all distinctions are forgotten, there remains only the undifferentiable one, which is the great whole. In the Chuang-tzu there are many passages about the method of forgetting distinctions. I have abounded my body and discarded my knowledge.

Thus I become one with the Infinite. This is what I mean by sitting in forgetfulness. If you have become one with the Great Evolution [of the universe], you are one who merely follow its changes. If you really have achieved this, I should like to follow your steps. The result of discarding knowledge is to have no knowledge. The former is a gift of nature, while the latter is an achievement of the spirit. Some of the Taoists saw this distinction very clearly. Sages are not persons who remain in a state of original ignorance.

A Short History Of Chinese Philosophy by Yu-Lan, Fung

They at one time possessed ordinary knowledge and made the usual distinctions, but they since forget them. The difference between them and the man of original ignorance is as great as that between the courageous man and the man who does not fear simply because he is sensible to fear. But there were also Taoists such as the authors of some chapters of Chuang-tzu , who failed to see this difference. They admired the primitive state of society and mind, and compared sages with children and the ignorant.

Children and the ignorant have no knowledge and do not make distinctions, so that they both seem to belong to the undifferentiable one. Their belonging to it, however, is entirely unconsciousness. They remain in the undifferentiable one, but they are not conscious of the fact. They are ones who have-no knowledge, but not who have no-knowledge. This teaching he transmitted personally to one of his disciples, who in turn transmitted it to his own disciple. The teaching was thus perpetuated until a major split in the school occurred, caused by the two chief disciples of the fifth Patriarch, Hung-jen One of them, Shen-hsiu died , became the founder of the Northern school; the other, Hui-neng , founded the Southern school.

The Southern school soon surpassed the Northern one in popularity, so that Hui-neng came to be recognized as the sixth Patriarch, the true successor of Hung-jen. How far we can depend on the earlier part of this traditional account is much questioned, for it is not supported by any documents dated earlier than eleventh century. It is not our purpose in this chapter to make a scholarly examination of this problem. Suffice it to say that no scholar today takes the tradition very seriously. From this work we learnt that Hui-neng was a native of the present Kwangtung province and became a student of Buddhism under Hung-jen.

Shen-hsiu then wrote a poem which read:. In it the combination already begun between the empty school and Taoism reached its climax. As we have seen in the last chapter, on this third level one simply cannot say anything. Hence the First Principle by its nature inexpressible. This was a practice that was later taken over by the Neo-Confucianists. He might, for example, be told that a price of a certain vegetable was then three cents. But this purpose is simply to let the student know that what he asks about is not answerable. Once he understand that, he understand a great deal. The First Principle is inexpressible, because what is called the Wu is not something about which anything can be said.

His question, in fact, was really not answerable, because he who is not linked to all things is one who transcends all things. This being so, how can you ask what kind of man he is? It is said, for example, that when Hui-chung died was to debate with another monk, he simply mounted his chair and remained silent. The thesis Hui-chung proposed was that of silence.

Since the first principle of Wu is not something about which anything can be said, the best way to expound it to remain silent. From this point of view no Scripture or Sutras have any real connection with the First Principle. You should kill everything that you meet internally or externally. If you meet buddha, kill Budha. If you meet the Patriarchs, kill the Patriarchs…. The you can gain your emancipation. The knowledge of First Principle is knowledge that is non-knowledge; hence the method of cultivation is also cultivation that is non-cultivation. It is said that Ma-tsu, before he became a disciple of Huai-jang died , lived on the Heng Mountain in present Hunan province.

There he occupied a solitary hut in which, all alone, he practised meditation. One day Huai-jang began to grind some bricks in front of the hut. When Ma-tsu saw it, he asked Huai-jang what he was doing. He replied that he was planning to make a mirror. To cultivate oneself in this way is to exercise deliberate effort, which is yu-wei having action. This yu-wei will, to be sure, produce some good effects, but it will not be everlasting.

The reason lies in causation. When the force of the cause is exhausted, he reverts to the impermanent. All forces have their final day. They are like a dart discharged through the air; when its strength is exhausted, it turns and falls to the ground. They are all connected with the Wheel of Birth and Death. Actually there is no such thing as Bodhi [Wisdom]. That the Buddha talked about it was simply as a means to educate men, just as yellow leaves may be taken as gold coins in order to stop the crying of children….

The only thing to be done is to rid yourself of your old Karma, as opportunity offers, and not to create new Karma from which will flow new calamities. This is exactly what the Taoists called wu-wei non-action and wu-hsin no mind. Rather it aims at doing things in such a way as to entail no effects at all. To do things without deliberate effort and purposeful mind id to do things naturally and to live naturally.

The simple fellow will laugh at you, but the wise will understand. Their fault is not having faith in themselves…. Do you wish to know who are the Patriarchs and Buddha? All of you who are before me are the patriarchs and Buddha. Here a question arises: Granted that this be so, then what is the difference between the man who engages in cultivation of this kind and the man who engages in no cultivation at all? If the latter does precisely what the former does, he too should achieve Nirvana , and so there should come a time when there will be no Wheel of birth and death at all.

To this question it may be answered that although to wear clothes and eat meals are in themselves common and simple matters, it is still not easy to do them with a completely non-purposeful mind and thus without any attachment. A person likes fine clothes, for example, but dislikes bad ones, and he feel pleased when others admire his clothes. These are all the attachments that result from wearing clothes.

In the beginning one will need to exert effort in order to be without effort, and to exercise a purposeful mind in order not to have such a mind, just as, in order to forget, one at first need to remember that one should forget. Later, however, the time comes when one must discard the effort to be without effort, and the mind that purposefully tries to have no purpose, just as one finally forgets to remember that one has to forget. Thus cultivation through non-cultivation is itself a kind of cultivation, just as knowledge that is not knowledge is nevertheless still a form of knowledge.

Such knowledge differs from original ignorance, and cultivation through non-cultivation likewise differs from original naturalness. For original ignorance and naturalness are gifts of nature, whereas knowledge that is not knowledge and cultivation through non-cultivation are both products of the spirit. For Buddhahood to be achieved, this cultivation must be climaxed by a Sudden Enlightenment, comparable to the leaping over of a precipice. Only after this leaping has taken place can Buddhahood be achieved. Knowledge is illusory consciousness and non-knowledge is blind unconsciousness.

If you really comprehend the indubitable Tao, it is like a wide expance of emptiness, so how can distinctions be forced in it between right and wrong? Its wide expanse of emptiness is not a void; it is simply a state in which all distinctions are gone. In this state the experiencer has discarded knowledge in the ordinary sense, because this kind of knowledge postulate a distinction between the knower and the known. This is what is called the knowledge that is not knowledge. When the student has reached the verge of Sudden Enlightenment, that is the time when the Master can help him the most.

When one is about to make the leap, a certain assistance, no matter how small, is a great help. If these acts were done at the right moment, the result would be a Sudden Enlightenment for the student. The explanation would seem to be that the physical act, thus performed, shocks the student into that psychological awareness of Enlightenment for which he has long been preparing. In the same way, when one is suddenly enlightened, he finds all his problems suddenly solved. They are solved not in the sense that he gain some positive solution for them, but in the sense that all the problems have ceased any longer to be problems.

The attainment of Sudden Enlightenment does not entail the attainment of anything further. But after Enlightenment one still sees the mountain as the mountain and the river as the river. You say that riding an ass to search for the ass is silly and that he who does it should be punished.

This is a very serious disease. But I tell you, do not search for the ass at all. The intelligent man, understanding my meaning, stops to search for the ass, and thus the deluded state of his mind cease to exist. I say to you, do not ride the ass at all. You yourself are the ass. Everything is the ass. Why do you ride on it?

If you ride, you cannot cure your disease. But if you do not ride, the universe is as a great expance open to your view. With these two disease expelled, nothing remained to affect your mind. This is spiritual cultivation. You need do nothing more. Where should you go to find the Buddha? Do not place a head on top of head or mouth beside a mouth. In passing from delusion to Enlightenment, he has left his mortal humanity behind and has entered sagehood. But after that he still has to leave sagehood behind and to enter once more into mortal humanity.

What he has to do, however, is not more than the ordinary things of daily life. Although the sage continues living on this side, his understanding of the other side is not in vain. Although what he does is just what everyone else does, yet it has a different significance to him. The man is no different from what he was before; it is only that what he does is different.

The man is not the same, because although what he does is what everyone else does, he has no attachment to anything. It was reserved to Neo-Confucianists, who are the subject of our next several chapters to do so. Yin being the female principle, and yang the male principle, the combination and interaction of which is believed by the Chinese to result in all universal phenomena.


Chinese Philosophy: Overview of History

The Ju chia or school of literati. Thus the western title is somewhat misleading, because it misses the implication that the followers of this school were scholars and as well as thinkers; they above all others, were the teachers of ancient classics and that the inheritors of the ancient cultural legacy. Confucius, to be sure, is the leading figure of this school and may rightly be considered as its founder.

The Mo chia or Mohist school. This school had a close-knit organization and strict discipline under the leadership of Mo Tzu. Its followers actually called themselves the Mohists. The Ming chia or school of names. The Fa chia or legalist school. The Chinese word Fa means pattern of law.

The school derived from a group of statesmen who maintained that good government must be one based on a fixed code of law instead of on the moral institutions which the literati stressed for government.

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The Tao-Te chia or school of the Way and its power. This group, called the Tao-Te school, was later simply as the Tao chia, and is referred to in western literature as the Taoist school. It should be kept carefully distinct from the Taoist religion. Let us imagine what China looked like politically and socially in, say, the tenth century B. Members of the Mohist school had their origin in the knights. Members of the Taoist school had their origin in the hermits. Members of the school of names had their origin in the debators. Members of the Yin-Yang school had their origin in the practitioners of the occult arts.

Rectification of the name: In regard to the society, he held that in order to have a well-ordered one, the most important thing is to carry out what he called the rectification of names. Chung and Shu: The practice of Jen human-heartedness consists in consideration for others. It was this Tao which Confucius at fifteen set his heart upon learning. What we now call learning means the increase of our knowledge, but the Tao is that whereby we can elevate our mind.

At forty: This statement means that he had then become a wise man. But at the age of fifty and sixty, he knew the Decree of Heaven and was obedient to it. In other words, he was then also conscious of super-moral values. Confucius in this respect was like Socrates.

Socrates thought that he had been appointed by a divine order to awaken the Greeks, and Confucius had a similar consciousness of a divine mission. At seventy: At this age, as has been told above, Confucius allowed his mind to follow whatever it desired, yet everything he did was naturally right of itself. His actions no longer needed a conscious guide.

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Coverage includes the fundamental concepts of strategic games, extensive games with perfect information, and coalitional games; the more advanced subjects of Bayesian games and extensive games with imperfect information; and the topics of repeated games, bargaining theory, evolutionary equilibrium, rationalizability, and maxminimization.

The book offers a wide variety of illustrations from the social and behavioural sciences. Each topic features examples that highlight theoretical points and illustrations that demonstrate how the theory may be used. Sign Up Wishlist Login Checkout. A Short History of Chinese Philosophy. Add to Wishlist. Product added! Browse Wishlist. The product is already in the wishlist! SKU: , Category: Philosophy.

A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy A Short History of Chinese Philosophy
A Short History of Chinese Philosophy

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